East Fishkill Traffic Circulation Plan

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TRAFFIC CIRCULATION PLAN prepared for the Town of East Fishkill, NY May 2001 Buckhurst Fish & Jacquemart, Inc. 881 Broadway, 3d Floor New York, NY 10003 Tel: (212) 353-7474 Fax: (212) 353-7494 Email: bfj@peapc.com ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 2 1 Introduction Buckhurst Fish & Jacquemart, Inc. (BFJ) has been retained by the Town of East Fishkill to develop a Town Circulation Plan to be adopted as part of the Town's Master Plan update. The study leading to the final plan includes six distinct tasks: 1 Inventory of Existing Transportation Data; 2. Inventory of Traffic Crash Data; 3. Review Circulation Issues and Problem Locations; 4. Conduct a survey of the Town's Park-and-Ride lot users; 5. Develop a Future Road Network Plan; 6. Develop a Plan for Other Transportation Modes; and 7. Develop a List of Local Improvements. Each task forms a separate chapter in this report with a final conclusion that summarizes the findings of this study and details the Town Circulation Plan. Figure 1 shows the regional context of East Fishkill and Figure 2 shows the local road network. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 3 [Figure 1. Regional Context]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 4 2 Inventory of Existing Road Data This chapter presents the existing transportation system and network in the Town of East Fishkill, as well as detailed traffic volumes on the road network. 2.1 Existing Road Network East Fishkill's transportation network is comprised of highways and streets, public transit routes, railway tracks and sidewalks. However, the Town's rural, low-density and multi- center nature, as well as its employment patterns, have favored the growth of auto-related transportation and resulted in a dependence on the automobile. Most of East Fishkill's residents drive to work, drive to the store, etc. The Town is well served by regional highways and has a relatively well developed network of local roads. See figure 2. Interstate 84, the Taconic State Parkway and State Routes 52, 82, 216 and 376 traverse the Town. Interstate 84 traverses the Town in an east-west direction and the Taconic State Parkway traverses the Town in a north-south direction. Together these highways form the backbone of East Fishkill's transportation system. The existing road network was classified by Dutchess County in 1991 to conform to the ISTEA legislation (see technical appendix I for details on ISTEA legislation). This road classification established different categories depending on whether the area is rural or urban. See table 1. Figure 2, based on the 1991 Dutchess County Functional Classification System of Streets, shows the current roadway classification. Figure 2 is the same as the County's system except for the classification of Fishkill Road in Hopewell Junction. Table 1 County Functional Road Classification Urban Rural Interstate Interstate Principal Arterial (Expressway) Principal Arterial Principal Arterial (Street) Minor Arterial Minor Arterial Major Collector Collector Interstate Roads in East Fishkill Interstate highways provide regional access for vehicles traveling to and from East Fishkill. They are high-speed roadways where all access and egress occurs via grade-separated interchanges. The only Interstate in East Fishkill is Interstate 84 (I-84), traversing East Fishkill in an east- west direction. Interstate 84 begins in Hartford, CT where it connects with Interstate 91, and goes west to Scranton, PA where it connects with Interstate 380. Generally it is a four- lane road with two lanes in both directions. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 5 [Figure 2. Existing Functional Road Classification]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 6 Principal Arterial (Expressway) in East Fishkill Principal Arterial (Expressway) is similar to the Interstate classification in terms of providing high-speed regional access but differs in terms of the level of access and restrictions on vehicle types. At-grade intersections may exist on a Principal Arterial (Expressway) but not on an Interstate. The only Principal Arterial (Expressway) in East Fishkill is the Taconic State Parkway. The Taconic State Parkway begins in Westchester County and heads north to Interstate 90, near Albany. The Taconic State Parkway has six lanes up to the connection with Bear Mountain Parkway at which point it becomes a four-lane parkway. No commercial vehicles are allowed on the Taconic State Parkway. Although the Taconic State Parkway is a 55-mph expressway, many stretches are below the current design standards. New York State Department of Transportation has an ongoing plan to upgrade the parkway to meeting current design standards. Principal Arterials in East Fishkill Principal arterials provide primarily for traffic movement between East Fishkill and the surrounding towns, and to a lesser degree give access to adjacent properties. The only major arterial streets in East Fishkill are NYS Route 52 west of the Taconic, NYS Rte 82, and NYS Rte 376. Minor Arterials in East Fishkill Minor arterials provide options for alternate traffic movement and may also serve to connect major arterials. Some through service is provided but traffic volumes are lighter than along the major arterials. The minor arterial streets in East Fishkill are largely County roads and are as follows: - Lime Kiln Road (County Route 27) north of Interstate 84 - Palen Road (County Route 31) - Beekman Road (County Route 9) - Carpenter Road and Clove Branch Road (County Route 29) - Hillside Lake Road (County Route 33) - Old Hopewell Road (County Route 28) - NYS Route 52 east of the Taconic State Parkway - NYS Route 216 Collector Roads in East Fishkill Collector Roads work as connectors between local roads and arterials. Generally, they are a little wider than local roads and are better equipped to cope with heavier traffic flows. The collector roads in East Fishkill are as follows: - Lake Walton Road; - Robinson Lane; - Hosner Mountain Road; - Shenandoah Road; - Fishkill Road and - Miller Hill Road. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 7 [Figure 3. AM Peak Hour Traffic Volumes 1996-98 (Annual % Change Since 1987)]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 8 [Figure 4. PM Peak Hour Traffic Volumes 1996-98 (Annual % Change Since 1987)]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 9 [Figure 5. 1998 Daily Traffic Volumes]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 10 [SAME AS ??? IN MASTER PLAN] ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 11 Although traffic for the town as a whole has been increasing slowly certain areas such as Hopewell Hamlet have seen more sizable increases, while other areas such as neighborhoods close to the IBM complex have seen sizable decreases in traffic. Concentrating on Hopewell Hamlet, there has been an overall increase of 26% in AM peak hour since 1987 and an overall increase of 18% in PM peak hour. In real terms that means that approximately 3900 vehicles currently pass through Hopewell Hamlet in the AM peak hour as opposed to approximately 3100 in 1987 and 4850 vehicles currently pass through the hamlet in the PM peak hour as compared to 4100 in 1987. The traffic increases in Hopewell Hamlet may have created the impression that large traffic increases have been experienced throughout the whole town, which is not the case. Average Annual Daily Traffic Volumes The average annual daily traffic volumes are shown in Figure 5 and are based on traffic volumes obtained from New York State DOT and Dutchess County. The figure shows that the highest volumes are an the expressways and NYS DOT highways, as one would expect. Interstate - 84 has the highest traffic volumes in East Fishkill with approximately 35,000 vehicles traveling on it per day. Within the local road network in East Fishkill the highest concentration of traffic is in Hopewell Hamlet. Approximately 26,000 vehicles pass through Hopewell Hamlet per day. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 12 3 Existing Traffic Crash Data Vehicle crash records for East Fishkill covering the period 1995-1998 were obtained from New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). The records covered the town roads as well as the state roads. BFJ summarized the crash data by location and severity (fatal, injury or property damage only). A total of 1525 crashes were detailed for the 4-year period, of these, 721 crashes were at an intersection (47% of all crashes) and 804 occurred on stretches of Rd. (53% of all crashes). Of the intersection crashes, 277 resulted in an injury or fatality (38% of intersection crashes). Of the crashes occurring on road stretches 255 resulted in an injury or a fatality (32% of road stretch crashes). These numbers reflect the rural aspect of East Fishkill, where drivers tend to speed more on open stretches of roads and so increase the risk of injuries. The total number of crashes is high for a town with the population size of East Fishkill, as is the number of crashes that result in a fatality (5 such crashes). This may be explained by three factors: 1. The high dependence on motor vehicles for transport in East Fishkill results in more usage of automobiles thus increasing the risk of crashes; 2. The rural nature of the roads in East Fishkill results in drivers increasing their speed and thus increasing their risk of crashing and injuries; and 3. The presence of four at-grade intersections with the Taconic State Parkway resulted in high-speed crashes that caused severe injuries and occasionally fatalities. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 13 High Crash Locations In order to concentrate on the most dangerous locations the highest fifteen crash locations were selected for both road stretches and intersections. From these the intersection crashes were summarized and are detailed in Figure 6. It was noticed that there were three areas in East Fishkill where clusters of crash locations formed. These are detailed in Table 2. Please note that some of the high accident locations (*) have been ameliorated through recent intersection or interchange improvements. Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Cyclists A total of 5 crashes involved pedestrians or cyclists on town roads and 11 on state roads. As is characteristic of this type of crash each one resulted in an injury. In total these represent only 1% of all crashes. The locations of these crashes varied throughout East Fishkill and no concentrations were found. The next chapter describes many of the high crash locations and makes recommendations for possible solutions. Table 2 High Intersection Crash Locations (1995-1998) Map Location At Fatal Injury Property Total No. Damage Only Reportable 1 Taconic State Parkway Miller Hill Rd 0 20 24 44* 2 Taconic State Parkway NYS Route 52 0 21 18 39* 3 Taconic State Parkway Carpenter Rd (CR 29) 0 21 13 34 4 Taconic State Parkway NYS Route 82 0 11 7 18 5 Taconic State Parkway Hosner Mountain Rd 2 9 6 17 6 Hillside Lake Road (CR 33) Clove Branch Rd (CR 29) 0 12 5 17 7 NYS Route 82 NYS Route 376 0 7 6 13 8 NYS Route 82 Palen Rd (CR 31) 0 9 2 11 9 NYS Route 82 Clove Branch Rd (CR 29) 0 6 4 10 10 Beekman Rd (CR 9) Carpenter Rd (CR 29) 0 7 3 10 11 NYS Route 82 Lake Walton Rd 0 7 2 9 12 Taconic State Parkway Stormville Rd 0 8 1 9 13 Beekman Rd (CR 9) NYS Route 82 0 4 2 6 14 Palen Rd. (CR 31) Harrigan Rd. 0 3 1 4 15 Moore Rd. Philips Rd. 0 4 0 4 * Locations have been improved since the accident data were collected. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 14 [Figure 6. Accident Clusters - same as in Master Plan?] ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 15 Table 3 High Crash Location Clusters Injury Property Total Lake Walton Road Cluster Damage Reportable Only Crashes Lake Walton Rd between Montfort Rd. and Homestead Dr. 4 0 4 Lake Walton Rd at Montfort Rd. 2 1 3 Lake Walton Rd at Homestead Dr 3 0 3 Lake Walton Rd at Brown Rd. 1 0 1 total 10 1 11 Carpenter - Beekman - Clove Branch Cluster Carpenter Rd. between Valdemar Rd. and 200m north 4 0 4 Carpenter Rd. between Beekman Rd. and 100m south 0 1 1 Beekman Rd. between Carpenter Rd. and Augusta Dr 1 0 1 Beekman Rd. at Carpenter Rd. 4 2 6 Beekman Rd. between Martin Rd. and Clove Branch Rd. 0 1 1 Clove Branch Rd. at Beekman Rd. 3 1 4 Clove Branch Rd. between Doran Brush Dr and Beekman Rd 4 2 6 total 16 7 23 Philips - Moore Cluster Philips Rd. at Park Pl. 2 1 3 Philips Rd. between Moore Rd. and 500m west 2 5 7 Philips Rd. between Moore Rd. and Park Pl. 4 0 4 Moore Rd. at Philips Rd. 4 0 4 Moore Rd. between Philips Rd. and town line 2 0 2 total 18 6 24 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 16 4 Review of Problem Locations and Circulation Issues 4.1 Problem Locations By far the most dangerous intersections in East Fishkill are the at-grade intersections with the Taconic State Parkway. in total there are three at-grade intersections: 1. at Carpenter Road; 2. at Hosner Mountain Road; and 3. at Stormville Road. Collectively the at-grade intersections account for 105 reportable crashes of which 58 resulted in an injury and 2 resulted in a fatality. Miller Hill Road At-Grade Intersection This intersection is the highest crash location between 1995-1998. In light of this NYS DOT re-constructed the interchange in 1999 to being a grade separated diamond interchange with access from the Taconic State Parkway to Miller Hill Road from both directions. Carpenter Road At-Grade Intersection This intersection was the third highest crash location between 1995-1998 in East Fishkill. One problem was that Carpenter Road was not visible to drivers approaching the intersection on the Taconic State Parkway. For northbound drivers the visibility was partially obstructed by vegetation on the central portion of the Taconic State Parkway, see photographs 1 and 2. This obstruction has been partially cleared by NYSDOT and a flashing light has been installed. Another problem at this intersection is the lack of deceleration and acceleration lanes. Vehicles wanting to turn off the Taconic are afraid to slow down to much because of the rear-end hazard created by higher speed vehicles. These vehicles then turn to fast into the side street. Photograph 1 500 feet from Carpenter Road on northbound approach of the Taconic State Parkway Photograph 2 500 feet from Carpenter Road on southbound approach of the Taconic State Parkway A grade-separated diamond interchange should be constructed at this location. This interchange would serve central East Fishkill and could possibly provide access to a commuter rail station on the MNR Beacon line. This improvement becomes important if and when the Stormville Road access further north is discontinued. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 17 Hosner Mountain Road At-Grade Intersection This intersection is the fifth highest in terms of total crashes and the highest in terms of fatalities: two fatalities occurred at this intersection in the period of 1995-1998. This intersection is particularly dangerous as the site distance on the eastern approach is limited both for drivers on the Taconic State Parkway and for drivers on Hosner Mountain Road. Hosner Mountain Road should be grade-separated from the Taconic State Parkway and should be rebuilt as an underpass under the Taconic. The feasibility of maintaining a northbound exit ramp should be investigated. This would reduce the traffic loads on Route 52. Stormville Road At-Grade Intersection This intersection was the twelfth highest crash location in East Fishkill with a total of nine crashes in the period of 1995-1998, eight of which resulted in a serious injury. This intersection is scheduled to be eliminated. This access should be closed as soon as the new interchange at Carpenter Road is built. West of the Taconic the section of Stormville Road between Pellbridge Road and the Taconic can be abandoned, and on the east side a turn-around should be built near the last driveway east of the Taconic. NYS Route 52 - Taconic State Parkway Intersection This interchange represents the second highest crash location in town. Although this is a grade separated intersection it is hazardous for two reasons: 1. the on-off ramps begin and terminate at stop controlled intersections where visibility is severely limited due to the Taconic State Parkway bridge; and 2. there are no acceleration or deceleration lanes on the Taconic State Parkway for vehicles entering or exiting at this location. A solution that would increase safety and capacity at the intersections with Route 52 would be to construct a modern roundabout at each intersection. Modern roundabouts have much smaller diameters (11O' for a single-lane roundabout) than older traffic circles and are being effectively used as a safe alternative to signalized intersections. Modern roundabouts represent the safest type of at-grade intersection. Apart from increased safety at this location modern roundabouts have the added benefit that the over-pass would not have to be re-built, as would be the case if the intersections were signalized. This would represent substantial cost savings. Appendix IV includes a description of modern roundabouts. NYS Route 82 - Taconic State Parkway Intersection This interchange represents the fourth highest crash location in town. It is very similar to the interchange with Route 52 and suffers from similar traffic safety problems. As for the Route 52 interchange, we recommend to study the feasibility of modern roundabouts at the two intersections of the Taconic ramps with Route 82. This is the safest type of traffic control and it avoids the reconstruction of the overpass. Hopewell Hamlet A location of concern within Hopewell Hamlet is the Z-bend on NYS Route 376 just north of the interscetion with NYS 82. This is a high crash location that includes a fatality in the period 1995-1998. Previous plans have recommended a road re-allignment at this ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 18 location. Until a re-allignment can be made we recommend that short-term measures such as rumble strips, extra lighting and larger reflectorized warning signage be used to highlight this location as being dangerous. Recently a driveway has been added at this location for the St. Colomba school and church. This driveway is currently one-way outbound at this location. Crash Clusters Lake Walton Road Cluster Although no obvious safety hazards are apparent on inspection of Lake Walton Road it is clear that it is a well used short-cut for traffic traveling between NYS Route 82 and NYS Route 376 who wish to avoid Hopewell Hamlet. This type of traffic is known as "pass- through" traffic and tends to travel at higher speeds than would normally be expected. Speed reduction methods such as the installation of traffic calming measures (speed humps on Lake Walton Road) would decrease the number of crashes at this location. Carpenter - Beekman - Clove Branch Cluster The high concentration of severe crashes at this location is due in part to the relatively high number of vehicles that pass through this area each day. A more in depth road safety analysis should be conducted at this location before recommendations can be made. The town should bring this location to the attention of the County who should be encouraged to propose various safety improvement options. Philips - Moore Cluster Many skid marks are present on Moore Road; and Philips Road has tight turns, a narrow bridge and uneven road surface. These are fast, rural roads with plenty of hidden hazards. Improvements under these circumstances are difficult, however road markings, deer warning signs and rumble strips before hidden hazards would increase driver awareness on these hazardous roads. 4.2 Circulation Issues Traffic in the Hopewell junction Hamlet represents the major circulation issue in East Fishkill. Hopewell Hamlet is the historic center of East Fishkill and today is the commercial and administrative center for the town. As was shown in the existing road conditions chapter Hopewell Hamlet has seen the largest increase of traffic in East Fishkill during the last decade and has become more congested. Traffic movements in the Hopewell Hamlet are concentrated around the intersections of NYS Route 376 and NYS Route 82. This has become a congested and unpleasant intersection. This is neither good from a transportation perspective, a commercial perspective or an environmental perspective. An additional circulation problem in Hopewell Hamlet is the commercial strip area on NYS Route 82 near Trinka Lane. As in most commercial strips each property has its own driveway and to get from one retail establishment to another shoppers often have to drive out one driveway and get in on another driveway. The overall result is one of lack of accessibility and unfriendliness for pedestrians and bicyclists. Solutions to the circulation issues in Hopewell Hamlet are addressed in the Future Road Network chapter. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 19 5 Town Park-and-Ride Lots There are two park-and-ride lots in East Fishkill: the first is on Lime Kiln Road just south of I-84 (see photograph 3) and the second is at the intersection of Taconic State Parkway and Route 52 (see photograph 4). As part of this study, the users of each park-and-ride lot were surveyed. The object of the survey was to identify commuter patterns and to identify improvements that could be made to the park-and-ride lots. Photograph 3 Lime Kiln Road / I-84 Park-and-ride Lot Photograph 4 Taconic State Parkway Park-and-ride A total of 45 survey forms were distributed at the Lime Kiln Road lot and 1O1 were distributed at the Taconic State Parkway lot. Table 4 details the number of responses from each lot. Table 4 Park-and-ride Lot Survey Response Rate Park-and-ride Lot Surveys Distributed Surveys Returned Response Rate Interstate 84 / Lime Kiln Road 45 14 31% Taconic State Parkway / Route 52 101 31 31% Both Combined 146 45 31% ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 20 98% of the respondents said that they used the parking lots as they were going to work, so the survey can be said to be representational of commuters. Charts 1 and 2 show the origins and destinations of commuters using the lots. Chart 1 Origins of Park-and-ride Survey Respondents      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) Chart 2 Destinations of Park-and-ride Survey Respondents      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) It is interesting to note that all destinations were south of East Fishkill with Westchester County accounting for over 50% of the destinations and New York City accounting for a further 16%. Another significant piece of information that came from the survey is that the average car/van-pool size was 5 people. This is a relatively high number and shows the effectiveness of the park-and-ride lots in reducing the number of long vehicle journeys. The fact that 60% of the users seem to be residing outside of East Fishkill does not mean that the park-and-ride lots do not serve town residents. Presumably most of the out-of- town residents share a ride with East Fishkill residents. it would not be logical that a ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 21 resident from Poughkeepsie park in East Fishkill to share a ride with a resident from Hyde Park. The park-and-ride users were asked to grade different aspects of the park-and-ride lots in terms of them being good, average or poor. The majority of respondents replied "good" to each area except telephones where the majority replied average. Chart 3 shows the results of this question. Chart 3 How do you grade the following items in the Park-and Ride lots?      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) Users were also asked to suggest improvements that could be made to the park-and-ride lots. Chart 4 shows the results of this question. Chart 4 How would you like to see the park-and-ride lot improved?      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) The largest single issue is increasing the number of parking spaces. This was especially important for users of the Taconic park-and-ride lot. Currently, there is a shortage of parking spaces at this parking lot and vehicles were seen to park illegally. New York State DOT is in the process of studying the enlargement of this park-and-ride lot. The State should also investigate opportunities to increase the park-and-ride capacity at an interchange further north along the Taconic. Another important issue at both parking lots is improving lighting and increasing the number and quality of telephones. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 22 The exit/entrance at the Taconic State Parkway park-and-ride lot was deemed by many as being unsafe. As suggested in the previous chapter, we recommend that the State investigate the construction of a modern roundabout at this location. Not only would a modern roundabout improve safety and capacity but would also not require the widening of NYS Route 52 and the reconstruction of the Taconic Overpass. These expensive measures would be necessary if the intersection were to be signalised (in order to provide for the turning lanes needed with a traffic signal). The feasibility of constructing the park-and-ride lot off Lime Kiln Road within the circular eastbound off-ramp of I-84 should be investigated. This large loop area is currently unused and would be easily accessible for traffic coming from the west. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 23 6 Future Road Network Plan 6.1 Roadway Classification Functional classification, or the classification of roads into different operational categories groups streets and highways according to the level of service they are intended to provide to the road user and the surrounding area. For example, limited access highways are designed for higher speeds and greater travel mobility for long-distance travel than are local access routes, which are intended to operate at lower speeds and provide direct access to abutting land uses. An important consideration for a town such as East Fishkill is the degree to which a road impacts the surrounding environment, for example a road that passes through a residential neighborhood should be given a lower designation than a road that avoids residential areas. Today's roadway classification in East Fishkill is a source of some of the conflicts and problems that are found on the town's roads. Typical examples of these problems are the numerous conflicts and accidents along NYS Route 82 just west of Route 376. Although this is classified as being a minor arterial the numerous commercial driveways located along this section of the highway lead to conflicts between local drivers and drivers who are passing through. Similar conflicts exist on most of East Fishkill's arterial or major collector roads where local traffic (generally making turns into or out of small driveways) comes into conflict with fast moving through traffic. As a general rule, minor driveways should not enter onto arterial roadways such as NYS Route 82, 52, 376 or Beekman Road. Instead they should enter onto service roads or collector roads that intersect with the arterials at safe intersections. These more important intersections can then be signalized or can have some other safe intersection control. Such traffic controls cannot be implemented for every single driveway. As was recommended the 1990 plan, [rest of sentence underlined] we propose that as much as possible no new driveways and no new minor or residential streets be connected to an arterial. In some cases, the above rule may not be possible without infringing on the owner's property rights, and the Town may not be able to deny access to a public road. Since the State has very limited rights to deny access on a state highway, it is incumbent on the municipality to exercise its land-use powers to control access. 6.2 New Roads To resolve circulation issues discussed in Chapter Five new roads are proposed for consideration. It is important to bear in mind the impacts for a town such as East Fishkill that are associated with new road construction. Previously, new roads were viewed on a simple road capacity basis: new roads were built where extra capacity is needed. Today it has become apparent that a more complex set of criteria are necessary. This is primarily due to development that follows new road construction. Often associated developments can be good for a town. On the other hand the extra development results in even higher traffic volumes on surrounding roads, leading to more capacity problems in the town's road network. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 24 Hopewell Hamlet Roads Four of the five new roads are proposed in Hopewell Hamlet and are designed to both increase capacity and to encourage development in that area. This fits into the vision of future development being centered around the existing commercial area. The following listing is not to be viewed in a strict sequence. The roads should be built in conjunction with other development projects as opportunities arise. Figure 7 shows the possible alignments. The first road is a north-south by-pass that would create a connection between Route 82 and Route 376 south of Hopewell Hamlet, allowing north-south traffic to bypass the congestion in Hopewell Hamlet on its west side (this was first outlined in the 1982 Master Plan). The second road is an east-west by-pass road on the north of the hamlet that would extend Fishkill Road east to connect with Route 82 at the intersection with Beekman Road (CR 9). As part of this by-pass the existing intersection of Fishkill Road and Route 82 would be re- alligned to connect with Palen Road (CR 31). The east-west by-pass would provide a more efficient route for east-west traffic. A third new road is proposed: the Fishkill Creek Road, this would be an east-west road connecting NYS Route 376 and Palen Road (CR 31). This road would function both as an east-west by-pass road and to provide access to future developments in the local area. The fourth and final new road in the Hopewell Hamlet area would be a service road for the shopping plazas on Route 82 at Trinka Lane. This road is shown in Figure 8 and would form a loop around the two strip malls providing alternative access routes for customers, delivery vehicles and land owners alike. The roads would intersect Route 82 at two signal controlled intersections that would provide crossing points for pedestrians and add a more urban feel to Route 82 as it passes through Hopewell Hamlet. Together the by-pass roads (shown in Figures 7 and 8) would greatly increase accessibility in Hopewell Hamlet and would also provide the ability to develop greater pedestrian connections within the hamlet. All new roads excepting the service road should be two- lane collector roads with 50 to 60 foot right-of-ways and sidewalks. The service road would be a local road with a 40 foot right-of way and sidewalks. It is not expected that all four of these new roads will be built in the foreseeable future, nor that they will all be needed. However, the Town should maintain these new connections in the plan and pursue the options in the future as they become more feasible. New development applications may present opportunities to fund part or all of a new road connection. The Town should also envision new funding mechanisms that would generate funds from the local property owners to eventually build one or more of the projects. New Stormville Road / Route 216 Link The 1982 Master Plan proposed a new Stormville Road connection that would link NYS Route 216 in Stormville Hamlet with Hosner Mountain Road just as it goes under I-84. After some thought, we have included this road as a possible new road. The link would provide more access in the eastern sector of East Fishkill and will help to reinforce Stormville Hamlet as a local center but could also lead to the rapid development of one of ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 25 the few remaining rural areas of East Fishkill. It could have the effect of furthering sprawl in this part of East Fishkill. This road would also pass through a large wetlands area which may make construction costs prohibitive. 6.3 Proposed Road Classification For the future we propose a road classification system that is basically the same as today's except for the new roads and road extension. The extended Fishkill Road is proposed to become a minor arterial, extending two other minor arterials (Beekman Road and Palen Road) and connecting to Rte 376, a principal arterial. Fishkill Road could in effect become an extension of County Route 9 (Beekman Road). The other new roads will all be collector roads, except for the shopping plaza service road in Hopewell hamlet which will be a local road. Figure 9 shows the new road classification system. We recommend that the Town pursue a more aggressive control of the functional classification of the road network. Access control along the arterial roads is very critical and should be implemented at every possible level. The Town must realize that it is the Town's responsibility to control access through the master plan and site plan approval mechanism, even when a project is located on a State Highway. The State does not have strong legal standing when it comes to access control. NYSDOT can only refuse a new driveway when it is an overwhelming hazard. The new roadways do not alleviate the need to control access along the State highways. They make the access control process easier by providing alternate access points to some of the commercial properties. Creative planning techniques should be used to encourage safe, efficient and realistic access plans. The following actions may be considered: - provide only partial access (i.e. right-turn-in and right-turn-out only); - offer connecting routes to other roads either directly or through adjacent properties whenever possible; - request applicants to consolidate or share driveways; - request applicants to provide easements to adjacent properties in perpetuity, so that in the future, when the neighbor applies for site plan approval combined driveways or interconnections can be provided; - possibly develop other parallel by-pass roads that can attract the through traffic and thus eliminate part of the conflict. On the other end of the scale there are functional conflicts whereby through traffic uses local streets and affects the residential quality of those streets. Typically traffic calming measures can be implemented on those streets to limit traffic speeds and the amount of through traffic. Generally traffic calming measures consist of speed humps, pinch points, chicanes, or neckdowns that force drivers to slowdown. Except for neckdowns that can be installed on arterials, these measures would be most appropriate on local streets. Appendix V includes more detailed descriptions of traffic calming techniques. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 26 6.4 Other Roadway Improvements Rte 52 and Fishkill Hook Road Fishkill Hook Road splits into two branches as it approaches Route 52: the easterly and the westerly branch. Each branch is controlled with a stop sign at Route 52. As for any side street to Route 52 that is not controlled with a traffic light, delays are very long to turn onto Route 52. To improve these delay conditions (and in recognition of the residential character of the west branch) it is recommended to install a traffic signal at the easterly branch of Fishkill Hook Road. This approach would need to be widened to provide for a left-turn lane and a right-turn lane to turn onto Route 52. The westerly branch of Fishkill Hook Road would remain two-way as today, however, no traffic would be allowed to exit onto Route 52. The westerly branch would be signed as a dead-end road (No Exit onto Rte 52) and the portion of this branch near Rte 52 would be narrowed to one lane southbound. Figure 10 shows the proposed improvements. This improvement would reduce the amount of traffic along the westerly branch and the narrow entrance would also reduce the traffic speeds along this section, thus reinforcing the residential character of this portion of the road. Traffic capacities for Fishkill Hook traffic turning onto Rte 52 would be increased at the new signal at the easterly branch. Road Network along Route 82 near the Rail Overpass East of Hopewell Junction The section of Route 82 between Beekman Road and Church Street in the Hopewell Hamlet suffers from a combination of problems. The functional conflict, whereby the arterial function is hampered by several minor sidestreets and driveways, is further complicated by the fact that due to the rail overpass at this location the sight distances are limited. For instance, Martin Road is located about 360 feet from the crest of the overpass. This distance corresponds to a safe stopping distance for a speed up to 40 mph. To the degree that eastbound traffic exceeds the 40 mph speed, Martin Road should be closed off at this location. One compromise would be to make the last section of Martin Road between the turn-around and Rte 82 one-way southbound into Martin Road. Turner Street located on the north side of Rte 82 also connects to Route 82 at a location that is narrow and has limited sight distances. This street should be connected to the new Fishkill Road bypass once this bypass is built. Turner Street at Rte 82 could then be restricted to right-turns in and right-turns out only. On the west side of the rail overpass similar problems exist: Bry Way leading to the lumber yard and to Empire Granite is only 300 feet from the overpass crest, and Orchard Place is only 400 feet from the crest. Prohibiting left turns in and left turns out at these locations would improve traffic conditions and safety, however, this would create a need for U-turns at other locations that could not be easily satisfied. If U-turns can be facilitated at the Rte 82/Beekman Road intersection, all left turns out of Martin Road and Bry Way could be prohibited, as well as the left turns into Orchard Place and Turner Street. A modern roundabout should be considered at the intersection of Rte 82 and Beekman Road when Fishkill Road gets connected into this intersection. This would then allow the access controls mentioned above. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 27 Another potential solution for Bry Way is to investigate the possibility of reorganizing the road network whereby Bry Way would be shifted to the west side of the Auchmoody funeral home, and the Auchmoody funeral home would obtain the current right-of-way of Bry Way. This option would involve a major reorganization of the funeral home circulation and may only be feasible when the funeral home is applying for a major reconstruction. For the next major rehabilitation of the Route 82 overpass consideration should be given to whether the vertical clearance can be lowered. Given the future possibilities for this rail line, it may be that there will be no need for the clearance that exists today. Lowering the overpass would improve some of the problems mentioned above. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 28 [Figure 7. Example of Possible Layout of Future Road Extensions in Hopewell Hamlet]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 29 [Figure 8. Hopewell Junction Proposed Improvements]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 30 [Figure 9. Future Functional Road Classification]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 31 [Figure 10. Improvements Proposed for Fishkill Hook Road at Route 52]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 32 7 Plan for Other Transportation Modes 7.1 Bus network The Dutchess County Loop Bus system operates three bus routes that pass through East Fishkill. These routes have a variety of different origins and destinations (see Figure 10). The following table details the bus loops. Table 5 Bus Routes Service Number/Stop Origin Destination Loop 3A Galleria Food Court Wappingers Loop 4 Hopewell Junction Dutchess mail Loop 8S Amenia Poughkeepsie It should be noted that only one of the three routes operates on weekdays, the Loop 4 route. This route provides access to Fishkill where passengers can make connections to buses going to other destinations, specifically the Leprechaun Connection to White Plains and Poughkeepsie. It is of some concern that there are no direct bus connections to either the MNR Harlem Line or the MNR Hudson Line. We recommend that the Town encourage the County to establish a bus route that would link Hopewell Hamlet directly to the Brewster North or the Pawling Station on the MNR Harlem Line or Beacon Station on the MNR Hudson Line. Ideally some form of commuter parking facility should be provided near a principal arterial (Taconic or I-84) in East Fishkill to encourage commuters to use the proposed bus service. In Hopewell Junction the buses would be accessed primarily by foot. 7.2 Rail Network East Fishkill, especially Hopewell Junction, was the center of regional rail activity for many years in the late 1800's / early 1900's. In total four railroad lines came together in East Fishkill: - the Dutchess and Columbia Railroad, - the Dutchess County Railroad, - the New York and New England Railroad and - the Clove Valley Railroad. As a result a number of railroad right-of-ways still pass through East Fishkill, most notably the Maybrook Line (formerly the Dutchess County Railroad) and the Beacon Line (formerly the New York and New England Railroad), see Figures 11 and 12. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 33 [Figure 11. Local Bus Service]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 34 [Figure 12. Regional Rail and Trail Network]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 35 [Figure 13] Local Rail Map      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 36 The Maybrook Corridor was actively used for freight rail service until 1974 when a fire damaged the Poughkeepsie Railroad Bridge. It was lightly used until its abandonment in 1983. At this point Dutchess County acquired the 13-mile segment of the Maybrook Corridor within Dutchess County. Currently New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is studying several alternatives for the Maybrook Corridor. The Beacon Line was recently purchased by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) from the Danbury Terminal Railroad Company (DTRC). DTRC retained the rights to operate freight services on the line. This 47-mile rail line connects the City of Beacon, NY in the west with the City of Danbury, CT in the east. As such the Beacon Line is the only east-west rail line in the MTA network and could provide a connection between its main commuter rail lines - the Hudson, Harlem and New Haven lines. Currently the MTA and its commuter rail division Metro-North Railroads (MNR) are studying as to whether or not a passenger rail service would be feasible on the Beacon Line. Various infrastructure improvements would have to be made before the rail line could be effectively used for either freight or passenger services. These include track rehabilitation, activation of grade crossings, repairs to bridges and culverts, and clearing of right-of-way. It should be noted that Putnam County currently plans to construct a trailway parallel to the Beacon Line between Brewster and the Dutchess County-line. The trailway would be built on the second track (the beacon line has two tracks) and would be built in three phases: Phase 1 NYS Route 164 to Dutchess County Line Phase 2 Brewster to Danbury, CT Phase 3 NYS Route 164 to Brewster We recommend that if the MNR study for the Beacon Line does not result in a recommendation for regular freight or passenger service the Town should support a trailway along the Beacon Line that would connect with the proposed trailway in Putnam County. Should the MNR Study find in favor of the idea of a passenger rail service, the Town should set a goal of having two stations in East Fishkill: the first would be a local rail station in Hopewell Hamlet that would have be similar in size to the MNR station in New Canaan, CT. This station would be primarily for walk and kiss-and-ride access with limited park-and-ride access, possibly with a town parking lot for town residents. A small local rail station in Hopewell Hamlet would further reinforce the hamlet as the Town's center and would allow higher density development of the area. The second station would be a larger commuter-oriented station adjacent to the Taconic State Parkway (preferably just south of the Carpenter Road intersection). This station would have a strong park-and-ride orientation. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 37 7.3 Pedestrian access Sidewalks are usually not needed in the types of low-density areas which are prevalent throughout East Fishkill. However, in areas of mixed use such as Hopewell Junction, sidewalks can encourage safe pedestrian movement and increase the life and vibrancy of the commercial areas. Sidewalks and other pedestrian improvements can make a commercial area more accessible to the patrons that are already in the area for a particular purpose. A pedestrian improvement study has been initiated by Dutchess County for the Hopewell Hamlet. This study looks into ways to improve pedestrian circulation and safety in the retail center of Hopewell Junction. This study could complement the future vision for Hopewell Hamlet that foresees pedestrian-oriented, mixed-use developments. 7.4 Bicycle Access In March 1996 the Poughkeepsie-Dutchess County Transportation Council (PDCTC) adopted a Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan as part of the County's Transportation Plan. The plan was developed in response to the federal ISTEA regulations and its purpose was to complete separate plans for bicycle and pedestrian issues. The plan, "identifies projects and actions needed to increase the number and improve the condition of sidewalks, crosswalks, paths, walkways, bike lanes, shoulders and other facilities used for non-motorized transportation." This section is based on the findings and recommendations laid out in the PDCTC Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, but also adds more recommendations specific to East Fishkill. East Fishkill has the lowest percentage in Dutchess County of residents who cycle or walk to work. Only 0.6% of the employed residents walked or cycled to work in East Fishkill as compared to an average of 4.8% for Dutchess County as a whole. This reflects the fact that East Fishkill is a low-density town where few people live near their workplace and most (77% of employed residents) work outside of the town. However, the low number of people who use bicycles or walk to work also reflects the poor bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure in East Fishkill. Currently no dedicated bicycle lanes, no bicycle parking facilities and no official bike trails can be found in East Fishkill. Figure 14 shows the bicycle network as proposed by the PDCTC plan and also bicycle improvements proposed as part of this master plan update. The PDCTC plan designates eight roads in East Fishkill as being part of the County bicycle network. These are NYS Route 52; NYS Route 82; NYS Route 216; NYS Route 376; Lime Kiln Road (CR 27); Clove Branch Road (CR 29); Palen Road (CR 31) and Lake Walton Road. A number of engineering improvements were recommended as part of the plan. These are detailed in Table 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 38 [Figure 14. Bicycle and Pedestrian Routes and Trails]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 39 Table 6 Recommended Bicycle Road Improvements Road Recommended Improvement NYS Route 52, 82 Widen Shoulders and add 'Share the Road' signage Make Signalized Intersections Bicycle Sensitive Install Bicycle Friendly Drainage Gratings NYS Route 216 ---- NYS Route 376 Widen Shoulders and add 'Share the Road' signage Make Signalized Intersections Bicycle Sensitive County Routes 27, 28, 29 Widen Shoulders and add "Share the Road' signage and 31 Make Signalized Intersections Bicycle Sensitive Lake Walton Road Resurface Make Signalized Intersections Bicycle Sensitive The plan also designates the Maybrook Corridor as a potential rails-to-trails route. This route goes from Hopewell Junction to Maybrook in Orange County passing through Poughkeepsie and will be both a good recreational trail and a potential commuter route for dedicated cyclists. A further local improvement would be to install secure bicycle racks in the Hopewell Junction commercial area, Town Hall, the town park-and-ride lots and town recreational areas such as the Hopewell Recreation Area. Bicycle racks are usually located in visible, well-lit areas and include some form of positive identification signage. Funding sources for bicycle related projects include the National Highway System (NHS), Surface Transportation Program (STP) and Congestion Mitigation Air Quality Program (CMAQ). NHS, STP and CMAQ are federal programs that are 80% funded with the remaining 20% being locally funded. New York State may contribute half the non-federal portion, leaving a 10% local match. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 40 8 Implementation Plan The following two tables list the local improvements necessary, in our opinion, to ensure the safe, efficient and economical transport of people and goods in the Town of East Fishkill. We have separated road improvements from rail, bus, bicycle and train improvements in order that they not be seen as conflicting interests. For each table we have prioritized projects based on their perceived cost-benefit advantage. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 41 Table 7 List of Recommended Roadway Improvements Priority Improvement Description Responsibility Funding Sources -------- ------------------------------------------------------------- -------------- --------------- Short-term Cut back vegetation at approaches to intersection of State State Carpenter Road and Taconic State Parkway. Short-term The town should ask the State to build a grade-separated State State diamond interchange at Carpenter Road with the Taconic State Parkway. This should be combined with the closing of the Stormville Road access to the Taconic. Short-term Traffic calming measures at Z-bend on NYS Route 376 in Hopewell State State Hamlet. These measures could include rumble strips and highly reflective hazard signage. Short-term Extend East-West by-pass along Fishkill Road from Rte 82/Palen State/County State/County Road to Rte 82/Beekman, study feasibility of roundabout at Property Property Rte 82/Beekman Road Owners Owner Short-term Service Loop Road at shopping plazas on route 82 in Hopewell Town/Property Town/Property Hamlet. Owners Owner Short-term Increasing number of parking spaces at the park-and-ride lot State State/County at NYS Route 52 and Taconic State Parkway Short-term Increasing number and quality of phones at park-and-ride lots State/Phone Phone Company Company Short-term Study modern roundabout intersections at Taconic State Parkway State State ramps / NYS Route 52 park-and-ride exits Short-term Road markings, deer signage and rumble strips on Moore and Town Town Philips Roads Short-term Monitor road safety at intersection of Beekman-Clove Branch- County County Carpenter Roads intersection Short-term Construct turning lanes at intersection of Lake Walton Road- State State NYS Route 376-Robinson Lane Short-term Study modern roundabout intersections at Taconic State Parkway State State and Route 82 Short-term Reduce speed limit on Palen Road from 45 to 40 mph County/Town County/Town Short-term Study traffic calming - speed reduction measures on Lake Town Town Walton Road Medium-term Re-align Z-bend on NYS Route 376 in Hopewell Hamlet to make it State State a less hazardous stretch of road. Medium-term Construct underpass at Hosner Mountain Road at intersection State State with Taconic State Parkway. Maintain the northbound exit ramp. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 42 Priority Improvement Description Responsibility Funding Sources -------- ------------------------------------------------------------- -------------- --------------- Long-term North-South by-pass between NYS Route 82 and NYS Route 376 at State/County/ State/County/ Hopewell Hamlet Property Property Owners Owner Long-term Construct Fishkill Creek Road between NYS Route 376 and Property Property Palen Road south of Hopewell Hamlet Owners Owner Long-term New Stormville Road linking NYS Route 216 and Hosner Mountain Property Property Road Owners/Town Owner Table 8 List of Recommended Rail-Bus-Bike-Pedestrian improvements Priority Improvement Description Responsibility Funding Sources -------- ------------------------------------------------------------- -------------- --------------- Short-term Encourage County to establish bus route linking Hopewell County County Hamlet to MNR Harlem Line or MNR Hudson Line Short-term Bicycle parking facilities should be installed at Hopewell Town CMAQ-TEA-21 Hamlet, the Hopewell Recreation Area, park-and-ride lots and the Town Hall Short-term The town should implement pedestrian friendly options for Town/County CMAQ-TEA-21 Hopewell Hamlet. Short-term Study the feasibility of a park-and-ride lot within State CMAQ-TEA-21 eastbound loop off-ramp of I-84 at Lime Kiln Road. Medium- The town should support the Dutchess County's plan to turn Town/County Town/County/ term the Maybrook Corridor into a trailway Non-Profit Organizations Medium- Build a park-and-ride lot in Town near principal arterial Town/County CMAQ-TEA-21 term to serve bus routes and bicycle trails Medium- Encourage NYS DOT and Dutchess County to make bicycle Town/County/ Town/County/ term improvements to State and County Roads as described in the State State Dutchess County bicycle plan Long-term If the Beacon Line is deemed feasible for passenger service Town/MTA Town/County/ then the Town should encourage the MTA to have a commuter Non-Profit rail station outside of Hopewell Hamlet and a local rail Organizations station in Hopewell Hamlet Long-term If the Beacon Line is deemed infeasible for passenger or Town/County Town/County freight traffic the town should support a bicycle trailway Non-Profit on the line Organizations ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 43 Technical Appendix I ISTEA and TEA-21 II Peak Hour Traffic Volumes Table III Park-and-Ride Questionnaire IV Introduction to Modern Roundabouts V Introduction to Traffic Calming ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 44 [Appendix] I ISTEA and TEA-21 Two key pieces of transportation legislation were enacted since the 1989 Masterplan Update. The first was the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, which was designed "to develop a national intermodal transportation system that [was] economically efficient, environmentally sound,provide[d) the foundation for the nation to compete in the global economy and [would] move people and goods in an energy efficient manner."(1) The Act provided funding authorizations for highways, highway safety, and mass transportation for the ensuing six years. Its focus was on maintenance, alternative forms of transportation, and the environment, as opposed to the construction of new roads. In 1998, Congress renewed the 1991 Act by passing the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), which built on the initiatives established by ISTEA. One of the provisions of both ISTEA and TEA-21 was the establishment of a National Highway System, consisting primarily of existing interstate routes, to focus federal resources on roads that are most important to interstate travel. Those road systems considered most important to the interstate travel network are those classified as "collector" and "arterial." Consequently, state and local governments, including the Poughkeepsie-Dutchess County Transportation Council (PDCTC), were urged to refine their functional classification systems to better accommodate the provisions set forth by ISTEA and TEA-24. ------ (1) The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 45 [Appendix II] |------------------------|------------------------| Town of East Fishkill Peak Hour Traffic Volumes | AM Peak Hour Volume | PM Peak Hour Volume | (1996-98) |------------------------|------------------------| -------------|--------------------------------|----|------| | | % Change | | | % Change | | | |Direc-|Recent| | from 1987 |Recent| | from 1987 | Recent 1987 O/o Change from 1987 Road | Location |Year| tion |Counts|1987|Total|Yearly|Counts|1987|Total|Yearly| -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| NYS Route 376 N of intersection w/ NYS 82 1997 nb | 200 150 42% 2.9% | 300 294 3% 0.2% S of intersection w/ NYS 82 1998 nb | 320 163 109% 6.3% | 700 684 3% 0.2% 1998 sb | 750 726 4% 0.3% | 650 396 73% 4.6% N of intersection w/ NYS 52 1998 nb | 230 111 121% 6.8% | 600 713 -19% -1.3% 1998 sb | 510 627 -22% -1.6% | 310 293 7% 0.5% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| NYS Route 82 between Palen Rd & NYS 376 1998 eb | 560 356 66% 4.2% | 650 652 0% 0.0% 1998 wb | 560 443 31% 2.2% | 670 591 16% 1.1% between NYS 376 & Beekman Rd 1998 eb | 440 263 77% 4.8% | 920 676 42% 2.8% 1998 wb | 680 622 11% 0.8% | 460 461 0% 0.0% between Lake Walton Rd & 1997 eb | 850 912 -9% -0.7% | 680 547 31% 2.2% Palen Rd 1997 wb | 600 537 15% 1.1% |1080 1175 -10% -0.8% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| Beekman Road between NYS 82 & Carpenter Rd 1997 eb | 170 86 119% 7.1% | 290 203 54% 3.6% 1997 wb | 180 143 33% 2.3% | 220 163 44% 3.0% between Carpenter Rd & Taconic 1997 eb | 160 97 80% 5.1% | 280 191 58% 3.9% 1997 wb | 220 188 22% 1.6% | 230 192 25% 1.8% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| Clove Branch between NYS 82 & Beekman Rd 1997 nb | 180 121 61% 4.1% | 260 254 3% 0.2% Road 1997 sb | 240 277 -17% -1.3% | 180 104 90% 5.6% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| Carpenter between Beekman Rd & Taconic 1997 nb | 100 67 62% 4.1% | 240 204 23% 1.6% Road 1997 sb | 240 253 -7% -0.5% | 140 95 59% 4.0% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| Palen Road north of intersection with 1996 nb | 130 203 -50% -3.5% | 620 752 -25% -1.8% NYS 52 1996 sb | 580 977 -56% -3.9% | 190 161 25% 1.9% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| County Route west of intersection with 1996 eb | 440 422 6% 0.5% | 330 274 29% 2.1% 28 NYS 82 1996 wb | 290 254 20% 1.5% | 540 603 -15% -1.1% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| Lime Kiln Rd between NYS 52 & I-84 1996 nb | 160 166 -5% -0.4% | 440 294 68% 4.6% 1996 sb | 460 545 -22% -1.6% | 180 138 42% 3.0% -------------|--------------------------------|----|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| NYS 52 west of intersection with 1996 eb | 310 215 61% 4.1% | 540 873 -53% -3.7% NYS 376 1996 wb | 430 829 -66% -4.5% | 360 347 5% 0.4% east of intersection with 1996 eb | 550 358 73% 4.9% | 520 610 -21% -1.5% NYS 376 1996 wb | 390 456 -21% -1.5% | 630 504 35% 2.5% ---------------------------------------------------|------|------|----|-----|------|------|----|-----|------| BFJ February 2000 Total 11200 10970 2% 0.21% 13570 12805 6% 0.58% ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ {Appendix III Park and Ride Questionnaire] ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX IV PAGE 1 [Appendix IV] INTRODUCTION TO MODERN ROUNDABOUTS 1. Development of the Modern Roundabout It is important not to confuse the successful modern roundabout with the older, "nonconforming" traffic circles built in the early- or Mid-20th century in the United States. Problematic elements in older designs are responsible for residual negative perceptions in the U.S. of the one-way rotary intersection. The two main deficiencies of old traffic circles are that 1) entering traffic often had the right-of-way, which tended to cause lock-ups at higher volumes; and 2) the circles were often designed for high-speed entries, increasing the likelihood of accidents and making the old traffic circles dangerous. In contrast, the modern roundabout system of Yield-at-Entry, requires that vehicles in the circulatory roadway have the right-of-way and all entering vehicles must wait for a gap in the circulating flow. Also, modern roundabouts are designed for slow entry speeds (typically 10 to 20 mph) making them very safe. In the 1950s, Great Britain tested the improved Yield-at-Entry roundabout and found that capacity was increased by 10 percent and delays were reduced by 40 percent in comparison to other options, including no control, police control, or signal control. Due to low entry speeds, crashes with injury were reduced by 40 percent when compared with cross intersections - both with and without signals. The improved roundabout was thereafter exported worldwide. Roundabouts are very common in France, Australia, Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, Spain and Portugal, and are increasingly common in New Zealand, South Africa and Israel. The roundabout is finally re-gaining acceptance in the United States, with examples like the Gainesville, FL roundabout, built in 1992, and the I-7O/Vail Road interchange completed in October 1995. In 1997 the Town of Avon, CO built a string of five roundabouts along Avon Road with a common cultural and landscaping theme. [Figure 1 Santa Barbara, California, Five Points Roundabout]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) 2. Overall Performance Rating of Roundabouts in the United States In surveys in the United States of 28 operating roundabouts, respondents confirmed that four criteria: 1) vehicle delay 2) capacity 3) safety 4) aesthetics ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX IV PAGE 2 had all improved in the majority of cases, or otherwise "stayed the same". No negative findings were reported. Only maintenance was reported, by a very low margin, as "worse". Reasons cited for the low satisfaction with maintenance included upkeep of the landscaped central island, additional snow removal times in mountain areas, and in one case the need to do maintenance work during the night because of limited circulation flexibility imposed by the presence of raised splitter islands in single-lane roundabouts. Overall, the increased acceptance of roundabouts in the United States is due to three main factors: A. Increased capacity and reduced vehicle delay A high degree of capacity and fluidity can be achieved by the modern roundabout. When greater capacity is required, relatively simple improvements can be implemented such as widening the entries to provide more than one entry lane, and widening the circulatory roadway. B. Improved Safety Roundabout design has consistently proven to be superior in safety to cross intersections. Reduced speeds alone make impacts less likely and less severe when they do occur. Driver error is less likely because the driver who enters the roundabout must be alert to only one traffic movement - he looks left for an acceptable gap to enter into the flow. By contrast, a driver at a four-way intersection has to deal with two or three different movements. (See Fig. 2) In a roundabout, no one can run a red light and cause a right-angle collision; accidents that do occur are generally side-swipe or rear-end types. The presence of the center island interrupts an otherwise straight path, forcing slowing and heightened awareness in the roundabout. in contrast, traffic given the green light at conventional signalized intersections does not slow at all. With road rage so much in the news recently, it is worth noting that reduced delays at roundabouts compared to signalized intersections have the effect of decreasing the level of frustration and aggressiveness of drivers, making them behave in a more responsible manner. [Figure 2 Safety Aspects of Roundabouts; Potential Conflict Points]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) Survey results taken before and after roundabout construction have proven these findings. In small- to moderate-sized roundabouts a total crash reduction was achieved of 51 percent, with a reduction of 73 percent in crashes with injury and 32 percent in property- only crashes. Large roundabouts experienced a less dramatic but still positive ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX IV PAGE 3 improvement. Total crashes were down 29 percent; crashes involving injury were down 31 percent and property-damage-only crashes were down 10 percent. A safety study conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety of 24 U.S. roundabouts has confirmed these substantial safety improvements. C. Positive Aesthetic and Environmental Effects The roundabout improves the visual quality of the road and is a major reason for the support it enjoys among residents, urban planners, and politicians. in many cases of roundabout construction there is a reduction in total area paved and a more elegant use of space. (See Fig. 3) The landscaped center island is an opportunity to create a sense of place. Reduced idling time at roundabouts has significant environmental benefits in the reduction of noise and air pollutant emissions. Field measurements in Sweden showed reductions in pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in the range of 21 to 29 percent. [Figure 3 Before and after roundabout construction, Bruhl, Germany ]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) 3. Public Acceptance of Roundabouts Due largely to the dangers presented by older "traffic circles" public opinion in the United States towards roundabouts is low. An interesting study was prepared in 1998 concerning public opinion towards roundabouts before and after one was constructed in the respondents' area. The study found that whereas before the construction of the roundabout 68 percent of public response was negative or very negative toward the roundabout, there were no negative feelings after the construction. After construction, 73 percent of the respondents indicated a positive or very positive attitude. It is also interesting to note that improvement in safety on newly built roundabouts is immediate, despite the fact that drivers are inexperienced with the roundabout. The initial negative public reaction to the Kingston, NY roundabout (opened end of November 2000) is an exception, and can be explained by the introduction of bypass lanes and the fact that the roundabout was opened before the signage, striping and markings were in place. 4. Perceived Safety Issues Related to Pedestrians and Bicyclists While the European experience has concluded that pedestrian safety is improved by roundabout construction, no statistically significant conclusions have yet been drawn in the United States, and many pedestrians here continue to perceive roundabouts as unsafe (until they've actually used them). in fact though, studies have pointed out that pedestrians in signalized intersections face great accident risk from vehicles making turns during the "walk" signal. The limited opportunity for conflict in a roundabout benefits the pedestrian who has to look out for only one vehicular conflict (entering or exiting traffic). The splitter island serves as a pedestrian refuge area between the lanes of two-way traffic, in effect shortening the distance pedestrians must cross and simplifying the decision process. And ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX IV PAGE 4 reduced speeds, in general, improve the chance that a motorist will see and stop for the pedestrian. See Figure 4. [Figure 4 Pedestrian crossing.]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) It is widely agreed that bicyclists are the most vulnerable users of roundabouts, and special attention must be paid to them. In low-speed, single-lane roundabouts, bicyclists are most often mixed in the traffic stream and no negative safety impacts have been observed. Bicycle safety tends to deteriorate at high-speed, multi-lane roundabouts and at flared entries. Among the solutions recommended to afford greater bicycle safety are separate bikeways, possibly mixed pedestrian-bikeways, separate bike routing through other intersections, or grade separation for all vulnerable modes. 5. Appropriate Locations for a Roundabout The roundabouts built in the United States cover a wide range of applications: roundabouts can be found in urban, suburban or rural areas, on arterials, collectors or local streets. The most appropriate locations identified for successful roundabout construction include, but are not limited to the following: - High accident locations, especially those related to cross movements or turning movements. - Locations with high delays (especially if there is limited space to accommodate lanes of waiting traffic). - Locations where traffic signals are not warranted. - Four-way stop sign intersections. - Intersections where it is difficult or expensive to widen the approaches sufficiently to provide the approach width needed for signalized intersections. Roundabouts function well with narrow approaches. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX IV PAGE 5 6. Costs Al the low end, $20,000 reflects the cost of a roundabout that is installed by the municipality's own personnel within an existing intersection, where the only work includes the construction of the central island and the splitter islands. At the high end are roundabouts built by the state agencies on state highways, generally involving substantial amounts of grading and drainage, as well as relatively long splitter islands and lots of curbs. These state-built roundabouts can cost in the range of.$350'000 to $500,000 each. The state of Maryland cited maintenance of traffic as an expensive element of construction at 2TI. of total. This high proportion of maintenance of traffic is due to the new roundabout being built at existing intersections with relatively high traffic volumes. It is expected that safety benefits offered by modern roundabouts and cost advantages for two-roundabout freeway interchanges will be the biggest factors in encouraging the construction of roundabouts in the United States. Cash-strapped municipalities and State DOTs will increasingly turn to roundabouts for solutions to high accident locations and heavily congested intersections. 7. More Information More information can be found at the following web sites or by contacting Georges Jacqeqmart, P.E. at (212) 353-7477. Crash Reductions Following Installation of Roundabouts in the United States from the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety http://www.city.pilo-alto.ca.us/embarcadero/Roundabout crash reductions.pdf NCHRP Synthesis 264 Modern Roundabout Practice in the United States http://www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/onfinepubs.nsf/web/NCHRPSynth.Web FHWA Roundabouts: An Informational Guide http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/00068.htm BFJ February 2001 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX V PAGE 1 (?) Introduction to Traffic Calming Throughout the United States traffic volumes and speeds are increasing on local streets in many areas. This is due in the most part to the fact that regional roads and arterials are becoming congested leading drivers to look for short-cuts. This extra traffic has a tendency to speed as the drivers are looking to make up for lost time and can also be unaware that they are driving in a residential area. The impact of this tendency is a reduced quality of life within the community. The larger number of speeding drivers increases noise and pollution, hinders local drivers and increases the accident rates within the neighborhood. To complicate this situation, engineers have generally designed local streets that encourage speeding. Drivers are often faced with wide, straight roads that seem to be underutilized compared with the arterials. The temptation to accelerate and drive at 35-40 mph rather than 25-30 is great. It is in these circumstances that local police departments are expected to enforce speed limits with dwindling resources. However, over the last fifteen years there has been a concerted attempt by traffic engineer and planners to develop measures to reverse this trend. Collectively these tools are known as "Traffic Calming Measures". Twenty years ago traffic calming was known as neighborhood traffic control. The objective is to discourage unwanted drivers from using the streets as short-cuts and to discourage drivers from driving at dangerous speeds. The diagram below illustrates the relationship between vehicle speed and severity of injuries in pedestrian - vehicle accidents. [Figure A Result of Speed on Vehicle - Pedestrian Collisions]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX V PAGE 2 (?) Traffic Calming Techniques Traffic calming techniques fall into two broad categories: physical control devices and visual control devices. Physical control devices include changes in the roadway which change driver behavior, such as speed humps, median barriers and roundabouts. visual control devices are primarily traffic signs, such as stop and speed limit signs, and pavement markings. Physical control devices are important as they force speeding drivers to slow down and visual control devices are important as they inform and remind drivers that they are travelling along a residential road. Normally physical control devices are selected depending on the severity of the speed problem; depending on the specific problem movements; whether busses or trucks actively use the road; and whether emergency vehicles use the road as primary access routes. Typical physical control devices include the following: - Speed Humps and Tables. Raised humps (approx. 4-5 inches high) in the paved surface of a street over a length of at least 1 - 3 feet in the direction of traffic flow and extending fully across the width of the roadway (see figure B). The transition slope is about 6' long, thus allowing bicycles and snow plows to pass easily. A speed table is long enough for both the front and rear wheels of a car to be on top of the table at once (8 - 12 feet). Speed tables may be incorporated as a crosswalk at intersections providing increased pedestrian safety or they may be used to raise the whole intersection. Speed humps and tables are the most effective devices for creating a stable speed profile and effectively moderating speed (see figure C). [Figure B Cross Section of a Speed Hump]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX V PAGE 3 (?) [Figure C Speed Hump Spacing and Resultant Vehicle Speed]      See the image described above (Then use browser BACK button to return here.) - Rumble Strips. Patterned sections of rough pavement or cobblestone strips across the road which cause a slight vibration in the car and in turn causes the driver to become more alert and/or slow down. Rumble strips have proven effective at reducing accidents when placed in advance of stops signs. They can have negative noise impacts. - Build-Outs or Neckdowns. A widening of the sidewalk in order to increase sidewalk space and decrease roadway width. Used at or near intersections to provide a visual cue to drivers indicating that they are entering a different environment and should slow down. Build-outs also provide increased pedestrian safety by reducing the distance over which they are exposed to traffic. They slow down traffic by visually narrowing the road and by forcing slower turns. Neckdowns are appropriate for residential and collector streets. On arterials they may be appropriate as long as they do not impede on a regular traffic lane. - Chicanes. Build-outs alternated from side to side on a street create a chicane which force drivers to slow down and go around. The travel lane width remains constant while being angled to the right or left. Chicanes are appropriate for residential and collector streets. - Diagonal Diverter. A barrier placed diagonally across an intersection to convert the intersection into two unconnected streets, each making a sharp turn. Diverters are effective in neighborhoods to discourage through traffic while still allowing residential access. Diagonal diverters are appropriate for residential and collector streets. - Semi-Diverter. A barrier to traffic at the intersection of two streets in which one direction of the street is blocked, but traffic from the opposite direction is allowed to pass through. Typically, semi-diverters block traffic from entering a block. Semi- diverters are appropriate for residential and collector streets. - Median Barrier. Used at the intersection of a major and minor street to make all left turns and through movements on the minor streets impossible. Median barriers are appropriate for arterial roadways or collector streets. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX V PAGE 4 (?) - Traffic Calming Circles. These circles, sometimes called mini-roundabouts, are generally built within the confines of existing four-way intersections. The central island can be built with cobblestones or an imbedded plastic circle that is driveable by larger vehicles or a raised, landscaped island that may preclude larger vehicles from making left or right turns. Traffic calming circles have been successfully built in Portland, Oregon and Seattle, Washington. Response to Community Requests As traffic calming devices become more accepted and enter into mainstream traffic engineering there will be more Community requests for the installation of traffic calming devices. A first step is to ask the community group to do some rudimentary traffic counts, counting the cars in their street during the peak morning, midday and afternoon peak hours. These counts can be easily taken for most residential streets without any technical equipment or knowledge. The counts should be taken for each direction of the road and broken down into 15-minute increments. Traffic counts can then be supplied to the town traffic consultant to determine as to whether the road is overly used or not. The community should also be asked to assemble a petition (e.g.50 street residents) who agree that there is a traffic problem that could be solved using traffic calming devices. Only then should the village traffic committee review the speed and accident data (provided by the village police) combined with the traffic volume data provided by the community group. Problem identification Once a location has been accepted as being worthy of study the first question is how to identify if the problem is valid or if it is exaggerated. The first guideline concerns traffic crashes. History already provides the data we need: have there been any crashes?; did they involve pedestrians?; how severe were they?; and do the crashes follow a certain pattern? The general rule of thumb concerning accidents is: if there have been 5 or more crashes at a single location in the last 3 years then there is a problem. The second guideline is speed. The phrase 'speed kills' is unfortunately true (see figure A) and whenever vehicles are travelling fast through residential areas there will be conflict and there may be casualties. The two guidelines are: the median speed and the 85th percentile speed. If the median speed is above the posted speed limit and if the 85th percentile speed is more than 15% above the posted speed limit then there may be a problem. The third guideline is traffic volume. Volumes for the morning, midday and afternoon peak hours should be counted and studied. If the volumes seem too high for the class of road ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX V PAGE 5 (?) concerned then there may be a problem. Volume data should be compared with speed data to give a wider picture of the traffic behavior.


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